Analyzing legal and security issues in cyber contracts (E - contracts)
- By: Adv. Kishan Dutt Kalaskar
- 2023-01-04 17:28:09
Divorce among Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, and Jains are governed by the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, Muslims by the Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act, 1939, Parsis by the Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, 1936 and Christians by the Indian Divorce Act, 1869. All civil and inter-community marriages are governed by the Special Marriage Act, 1956 respectively.
The Notice regarding divorce is the way where both the parties have one chance of reconciliation, or come in front and talk on issues and try to solve them...
Mutual Divorce under Section 13(B) of the Hindu Marriage Act: Under Section 13-B of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, the parties can seek divorce by mutual consent by filing a petition before the court. Mutual Consent Divorce is the simplest way of coming out of the marriage and dissolve it legally. Mutual consent means that both the parties (i.e husband and wife) are agreed for a peaceful separation.
Divorce under Section 13 of the Hindu Marriage Act: Under this section, there are various grounds i.e. adultery, cruelty, deserting the other party for 2 years, conversion to another religion, unsound mind, mental disorder, etc. to file divorce.
Procedure for filing the divorce is that you may send a notice to the other party, stating the reason to file a divorce petition, asking another party whether they are ready to reconcile the issues. This notice should mention waiting period of 15 or 30 days in order to receive the revert from the other party. After the completion of the waiting period, if other party refuses to reply or is not replying then you can file a Civil case against him/her.
There is no compulsion to send a Legal Notice to the other party, you can directly file a case against him/her. The jurisdiction to file divorce may be the place the party resides, or they lastly resided together.
The Special Marriage Act, 1954 is an Act of the Parliament Of India enacted to provide a special form of marriage for the people of India and all Indian nationals in foreign countries, irrespective of the religion or faith followed by either party. The Act originated from a piece of legislation proposed during the late 19th century. Marriages solemnized under the Special Marriage Act are not governed by personal laws. It can apply in inter-caste and inter-religion marriages.
Now a day’s youth generation was getting married with their own choice and they prefer who has a better compatibility with them, rather than marrying someone who belongs to their caste or their religion.
All religions are equal and marriage amongst it should not be a big deal. Caste or religion is conferred on us by birth and not by choice. Thus, the Special Marriage Act is a special legislation that was enacted to provide for a special form of marriage, by registration where the parties to the marriage are not required to renounce his/her religion.
Under this Act, if any spouse wants to take a divorce she/he can file a case at any District Court. Explained in detail as below:
Every petition under Chapter V or Chapter VI shall be presented to the district court within the local limits of whose original civil jurisdiction.
2) Without prejudice to any jurisdiction exercisable by the court under sub-section (1), the district court may, by virtue of this sub-section, entertain a petition by a wife domiciled in the territories to which this Act extends for nullity of marriage or for divorce if she is resident in the said territories and has been ordinarily resident therein for a period of three years immediately preceding the presentation of the petition and the husband is not resident in the said territories.
Before filing case, one legal notice of waiting period for 15 or 30 days be dispatched to the other party, in order to notify him/her whether he/she wants a divorce or is intending to go for reconciliation. If another party has replied within and he/she is ready for divorce then they can go for the Mutual Divorce. In case there are clashes in resolving problems and disputes between both, so you can file divorce on followings ground i.e. Adultery, Cruelty, desertion, imprisonment for seven years and more or unsound mind, or mental disorder respectively.
Tenant can be evicted from the premises after considering the rental Laws of the India, the conditions prescribed in the rent agreement and valid reasons of the eviction. Tenant Eviction Notice is a way to remove the tenant from rented premise of landlord, before filing lawsuit.The landlord must give reasonable time to tenant to vacate the rented property by serving a written notice not less than 30 days or of a period as mentioned in the rent agreement.Notice shall contain valid reasons of eviction and it is advisable to get it drafted through expert property lawyer. It should contain the time and date by which tenant has to vacate the property.
The landlord can file the lawsuit in appropriate jurisdiction of court, in case of refusal of notice or not satisfactory reply from tenant.After filing the case court may send the eviction notice to the tenant to vacate rental property. In the majority of cases, the tenants leave the rented premises after receiving a legal notice from the court...
Without help of court and police, evictions are illegal in every state. Even if tenant is liar, deadbeat and causing physical damage to landlord’s property, landlords cannot do any of the following actions without court permission:-
The eviction notice,considered valid only when it contains all the necessary requirements. It should indicate tenant name, date, reason and requires a response as per mention in notice.Eviction notice process also depends upon court jurisdiction and the various situations including time taken by the tenant for reply.
As mentioned above in detail, in case you are facing any issue with the tenant, legal notice is the option to be exercised before approaching the Court. Legato helps you in connecting with experienced lawyers who can assist you in drafting legal notice and even in filing lawsuit as a next step.
In India most probably peoples reside on a rental basis. Because of exorbitant rates of properties in metro cities like Mumbai, many people are in the form of traveller workers. Living as a tenant can be a comfortable deal but sometimes there are cases where the tenant has to face rental issues and other related problems like getting an unwarranted eviction notice, or rude behaviour and also Refund of Security. So, let us understand the steps for a refund of security deposit from the landlord.
If you want to vacate the rented premises or to the shift any other place, you have to inform the landlord before one month about vacating the premises and ask refund of security deposit. In case the landlord is not ready to return the security deposit, always give your landlord 30 days written notice when you decide to move and ask him regarding refund of security deposit along with a photocopy of security deposit receipt through Registered post Ad/ Speed Post via email or Courier. After receiving notice, if the landlord does not reply positively then you can file Civil Suit for money inform of deposit and a criminal case for Cheating and Criminal breach of trust Or Continue to live the premises without paying rent till the security money is adjusted...
Provide your Forwarding Address to Landlord
Notify your landlord of your forwarding address in writing, regardless if he asks. In many states, if a renter doesn't provide a forwarding address then, landlords aren't responsible for the same deposit refunds.
Before Moving to check the list of Premise
Before moving from rented premise prepare the checklist of the things, that helps you to what charges if any, you'll be responsible for. Bring your move-in checklist for cross-referencing. If you disagree with damages you can ask the landlord for the same.
If you are living group/ friends
Most leases with multiple renters hold each individual fully accountable for the group as a whole. That means each renter is responsible for the full amount of the rent and any damages, regardless of who caused it. So make sure you're not stuck with the bill for your roommate's wild party that resulted in three holes in the wall. In some states, the security deposit is refunded in equal portions, regardless of who wrote the original check.
Typically, damage charges can't exceed actual repair costs. Fees for items like carpet, which depreciate in value over time, should take normal wear and tear into account.
When you will get a security deposit?
(1)After completion of agreement period or when you vacate the rented premises.
(2) You'll receive a letter with itemized deductions that explains why some or all of your deposit is not being returned.
No Letter or Deposit?
What if the allotted time passes and you never receive a letter or a refund? Don't worry. These are steps in place to protect your rights.
If your landlord doesn't refund the deposit after the seven-day notice, you can sue him in small claims court. If your landlord sends a letter on time saying he is withholding some or all of your deposit, but you think the amount is too high, you can still sue him in small claims court.
Damaged or defective parts of the products and services covered under manufacturer's warranty and if the provider denies accepting it, then return those products immediately to the manufacturer by sending him a legal notice through an expert lawyer...
Cheque bounce is a very much common term we hear or experience in day to day life. As the word suggests it is dishonour of the cheque issued. Cheque bouncing cases comes under Section 138 of the Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 (the Act) and creates criminal liability, punishable with fine and imprisonment under the Act and under Indian Penal Code, 1960.
‘Section 6’ of said Act, says that, “A "cheque" is a bill of exchange drawn on a specified banker and not expressed to be payable otherwise than on demand.”
Cheque bounce notice is the only intimation to the issuer that legal action will be taken by the cheque beneficiary in
case of non-payment of cheque amount on an immediate basis.
Cheque bounce is a condition arising due to the dishonour of the cheque issued. Sending notice to the person issuing a cheque, for the dishonour of said cheque is the first and foremost step to initiate a legal case under the Act. The notice provides a chance to the issuer of the cheque to make the payment good and so as to avoid the law suit.
Recently, Parliament has passed The Negotiable Instruments (Amendment) Bill, for quick prosecution in case of cheque bounce. Under this, once the lawsuit is filed, an order may be passed by the Court asking the payment of interim compensation to the complainant by the defaulter...
It is always advisable to draft and send the notice by taking the assistance of the legal expert so as to avoid any future issues, which may be caused due to lack of substantial content as per legal requirements. Generally, notice needs to be on a plain paper or on the letterhead of the business/lawyers. The notice shall be duly signed and also sealed, in case sender is the Company. It needs to be dispatched at the address of the cheque issuer through Registered post AD/ Speed post/ Courier. Sending notice through email is allowed if the sender is a business entity. Cheque beneficiary/ Complainant can retain one copy (called as an OC Copy) of the notice with himself. Legal notice shall contain the following details and information.
If the cheque is returned unpaid for the second time, then one can issue a legal notice within 30 days from the date of the cheque being returned unpaid for the second time. [However, if the validity period of the cheque is already completed, then the above-mentioned option cannot be exercised.].
In India, there are different types of Act which are governed by state and central to protect and provide all facilities to the labourers. It is safeguarding the interest of workers as part of the fundamental rights of the constitution of India. Indian labour law makes a distinction between people who work in "organized" sectors and people working in "unorganized sectors". People who do not fall within these sectors, the ordinary Law of contract applies. The working people and their organizations include trade unions and employee unions, enforced by government agencies.
Labour is the amount of physical, mental and social effort used to produce goods and services in an economy. It supplies the expertise, manpower, and service needed to turn raw materials into finished products and services...
The labour law is reflective of various struggles in the society, including employers cost capabilities, employees demands, health safety conditions, political pressures during a given point of time. Following are the few points:-
Domestic workers in India
Child labour in India is prohibited by the Constitution, article 24, in factories, mines and hazardous employment, and that under article 21 the state should provide free and compulsory education up to a child is aged 14.
Sexual Harassment at the Workplace (Prohibition, Prevention and Redressed) Act, 2013
The Sexual Harassment at Workplace (Prohibition, Prevention and Redressal) Act, 2013 (SHW Act) was enacted by the Parliament to provide protection against sexual harassment of women at workplace and prevention and redressal of complaints of sexual harassment and for matters connected therewith. The SHW Act makes it mandatory for every organization having 10 employees and more to constitute an Internal Complaints Committee (ICC) to entertain complaints that may be made by aggrieved women.
The SHW Act also provides that the aggrieved women may in writing make a complaint of sexual harassment as the case may be within a period of three months from the date of occurrence of such incident. Further, in a case where the aggrieved woman is unable to make a complaint on account of her physical incapacity or Death, a complaint may be filed inter alia by her relative or legal heirs.
Protection of Intellectual property repeatedly goes un-noticed by the business owners. Very few business or start-up owners understand the importance of safeguarding their Intellectual Property in long run. It is therefore highly very important for a business owner, a startup owner, a creative person or an inventor to have clarity about the concepts of Trademark, Copyright.
Trademark: A trademark is a symbol, logo, design, word, phrase, colour, sound or a combination of these which is used for the purpose of trading goods or providing services. It indicates the source of goods and services and distinguishes them from the goods and services of others. It provides individuality of rights to the use of a trademark in relation to the product or service
Documents can be filed by a person or through his duly authorized agent to the appropriate office of the trademark registry. The Registry must be in the territorial jurisdiction where the business is located. Documents must be a filed at the office personally through registered post Ad or by submitting Documents on their official website.
Documents must be a filed in Hindi or English, it must be handwritten or typed. It should contain the detailed information/contents of the business i.e. Name, the address for service of person, details, and grounds, etc...
Copyright: Copyright is a right given to the creators of literary, dramatic, musical and a number of other works of the intellect. It normally means that only the creator has the right to make copies of his or her works or prevents others from making copies. The basic idea behind such protection is the premise that innovations require incentives. Copyright recognizes this need and gives it a legal sanction. Copyright protects all of them.
Section 62 of the Copyright Act, 1957:
Jurisdiction of court over matters arising under this Chapter.—
The Copyright Act, 1957 gives the rights, procedure, authorities established and relief modes under copyrights. It lays down a definition of copyright and states the types of works protected under this law i.e. literary works, dramatic works, artistic works, musical works, cinematograph films, and sound recordings.
The definition of corporate is something related to a business group or a business that operates as a single legal unit.
A corporation is a form of organization that has an existence independent of its owners. It has powers and liabilities of the separate and individual form of its owners. They can be organized for many purposes and can come in many ways...
If the corporation cannot pay debts, in this case, company assets must be seized and sold. But although you can lose your investment, the creditors cannot attach your personal assets (such as cars, houses, or bank accounts) to satisfy their claims.
Personal liability may also be imposed if the corporation does not comply with required legal formalities or fails to keep proper records. Forming a Corporation:-
If you want to form a corporation, it is necessary to obtain a state charter. Here are some things to do before you apply:
In a corporation, a group of shareholders has shared ownership, represented by holding shares of common stock. Most business corporations are established with the goal of providing a return for its shareholders in the form of profits. Shareholders have the right to share in the profits of the business but are not personally liable for the company's debts. This concept is known as limited liability and is one of the main advantages of the corporation in a form of doing business.
The board of directors is responsible for overseeing and directing the business of the corporation in the best interest of the shareholders. The key point here is an oversight; the board is not expected to actually operate the business. Rather, its purpose is to oversee operations, approve major plans, and monitor financial performance.
The board generally performs the following functions:
The board of directors is generally comprised of three types of people. The chairman of the board is technically the leader of the corporation, responsible for running the board effectively.
To prevent the concentration of power and information in one or a few individuals, boards are advised to have a balance of executive and non-executive directors, some of whom are independent.
An executive director is also an executive of the company, such as a CEO or CFO. A non-executive director is not a part of management and is valued for external perspectives and unique expertise.
“Non-executive” directors should meet in private regularly, without the presence of “executive” directors, according to governance experts.
Employees must be appointing any of Director to fix their salary.
Profit and losses are not always fixed in the corporation as they are always fluctuating in nature. It mainly depends upon the share market.
There are no limits on who can become a great Business entrepreneur. You don't necessarily need a college degree, a bunch of money in the bank or even business experience to start something that could become the next major success. However, what you do need is a strong plan and the drive to see it through.
Things to remember and required to start a business/company...
Supreme Court of India is the highest court in the Republic of India; it is a ladder of the court in many legal jurisdictions. Supreme Court is also known as apex court and the highest or final court of appeal. The decisions of a supreme court are not subject to further review by any other court, but their Orders are full and final and duty bound to all lower courts and can only be modified in some cases like death sentence by the President of India. It has several jurisdictions namely Original, Appellate, and Advisory.
Supreme court typically functions as an Appellate Court, which means hearing appeals from decisions of lower trial courts, or from intermediate-level appellate courts.
Supreme Court of India is located at New Delhi. The Supreme Court judges are appointed by the President of India, as per the guidelines of the Constitution Of India. These judges get retired at the age of 65. There are currently 24 judges including Chief Justice of India against a maximum possible strength of 31...
In India, the Supreme Court of India was created on January 28, 1950, after acceptance of the Constitution. Article 141 of the Constitution of India states that the law declared by the Supreme Court is to be binding on all Courts within the territory of India. It is the highest court in India and has ultimate judicial authority to interpret the Constitution and decide questions of national law (including local by-laws). The Supreme Court is also vested with the power of judicial review to ensure the application of the rule of law.
Note that within the constitutional structure of India, Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) has a special status vis-a-vis the other states of India. Article 370 of the Indian Constitution is an article that gives independent status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The article is drafted in Part XXI of the Constitution namely Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions.
The principles applied by the Supreme Court in its decisions are binding upon all lower courts; this is intended to apply a uniform interpretation and implementation of the law. The decisions of the Supreme Court are not necessarily binding beyond the immediate case before it; however, in practice, the decisions of the Supreme Court usually provide a very strong precedent, or jurisprudence consternate, for both itself and all lower courts.
It is also known as the court of records, i. e. all judgments are recorded and printed. These are cited in lower courts as case - law in various cases.
Now a day’s India has been receiving large numbers of immigrants, mostly from the neighbouring countries and some from other parts of the world, and hence it needs to be seen as a major immigration country. The purpose of immigrating is to gain citizenship in a nation. In India, the law related to citizenship or nationality is largely governed by the provisions of the Constitution. The Constitution of India provides for single citizenship for the entire country.
The provisions relating to citizenship are contained in Articles 5 to 11 in part II of the Constitution of India. Articles 5 to 9 of the Constitution provides for the status of persons as Indian citizens at the Commencement of the Constitution. Article 10 provides for their continuance as such citizens subject to the provisions of any law that may be enacted by the legislature. Under article 11, the Constitution expressly saves the power of parliament “to make any provisions with respect to the termination and acquisition of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship”. Article 5 states that at the commencement of this constitution, every person belonging to the following categories, who has his domicile in the territory of India, shall be a citizen of India:...
Article 6 of the Constitution provides for the rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan. Article 7 of the Constitution has made provisions for citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan and Article 8 of the Constitution provides for the rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India.
When an individual enters a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence and ultimately gaining citizenship, it is called Immigration. Immigration Law constitutes a very complicated set of rules, regulations, and exceptions, but the residence of immigrants is subject to the conditions set by the Immigration Law. Every country has specific laws to govern Immigration within it.
In India there are 86 Immigration Check Posts, catering to international traffic. Out of these, 37 ICPs are functioning under the Bureau of Immigration, while the remaining are being managed by the concerned State Governments.
Immigration Law is the law which exclusively governs Immigration in a country. For instance, a Government may in its discretion determine who it may allow in, and for how long, and who it may deport, the subject of course to internationally accepted basic human rights and principles.
The objective of immigration is obtaining citizenship or nationality in a different country. In India, the law relating to citizenship or nationality is mainly governed by the provision of the Constitution. The Constitution of India provides for single citizenship for the entire country.
So far as foreign residents are concerned, Immigration Law is related to the Nationality Law of a national governing the matters of citizenship. International Law regulates Immigration Law concerning the citizens of a country. Hence, Immigration law refers to national government policies which control the phenomenon of immigration to their country.
A departure card, which also known as an outgoing passenger card or embarkation card, is a Legal Document used by immigration authorities to provide passenger identification and an effective record of a person’s departure from certain countries. It also serves as a declaration in relation to health and character requirements for non-citizens entering a particular country.
Typically the information on the departure card includes:
Various Acts Governing Immigration Into India:
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