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Rules to be followed by the Ganpati Mandals
  • By: admin
  • Date: 11 Sep 2019
  • Others
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The Mandal should take permission from the maintenance department of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), which sanctions the setting up of the mandap. The willing Mandals need to submit an online application for receiving the consent for setting up the Mandap.

The BMC issues two months prior notice to the Ganesh festival for the Ganesha Mandals across the city to seek permission by applying online. The BMC online application system is linked with the police and traffic department, respectively.

Before submitting the application to BMC, the applicant needs to sign an undertaking cum Indemnity Bond for fire safety requirements of the fire brigade. The Chairman, Secretary and applicant all three have to sign the undertaking or the bond.

After submitting the applications, the applications are forwarded to ward offices along with the police and traffic department within three days for approval.

Apart from the online permission, the Mandals have to obtain permission from the local police station for Agaman, Visarjan and playing sound system.

The notice issued states that the Mandals will have to follow the rules and regulations stated by BMC in Mumbai.
As per the High Court, the core committee of the Mandal has to take the permission of the City Police Commissioner so that police can ensure the right of the citizens, smooth movement of traffic and free pedestrian movement on footpaths.

Mandals should comply with the rules related to the location, immersion, sound limits etc. Some of the rules that should be followed by the Mandals are as follows:

  1. The Mandal cannot set up a Mandap which encroaches a footpath or obstructs traffic. 
  2. The Mandal Committee members shall take measures to prevent sound pollution and should not use loudspeakers after 10 p.m.
  3. The Mandap should be located minimum 10 feet away from a building; also the road leading towards the Mandals should not have any obstructions for e.g. the parked vehicles, hoardings, etc. 
  4. The Mandap should be at least 15 meters away from railway and from combustible places such as an electric sub-station, chimney or furnace.
  5. The necessary fire safety measures should be taken, including electrical wiring, fire extinguishers (both water and dry powdered ones), etc. 
  6. Permission from police and traffic department is essential.
  7. The rules stated by BMC has clearly mentioned that the holes should not be made on the road. If any Mandals is found making holes on the road will be penalized with a hefty fine.
  8. It is necessary to mention the dimension of the Mandap with respect to its height, width, size, etc. while filling up the application form in order to get consent.
  9. No hoardings of advertisement related to tobacco and the related products anywhere within or around the mandap shall be found. The hoardings should not create an obstruction for the movement of people and emergency vehicles like an ambulance.
  10. The Mandal should be responsible for maintaining hygiene and cleanliness all around the Mandap for all days of the festival. After the celebration is done, the very next day, the whole place where the Mandap was built should be cleaned up. There should be no presence of litter/ garbage left around the Mandals. 
  11. No stalls are allowed to set up inside the Mandals. The stalls set outside the Mandals are not permitted as they can possibly create an obstruction to the road.  It is necessary to take permission for setting temporary arches, gates which the Mandals may build temporarily at the entry or exit point of the Mandap.  
  12. Every Mandal should display the telephone or mobile number of the competent authority for various civic services, complaints, health-related complaints,  for security purpose and different type of nuisance.
  13. The toll- free number should be displayed on the Mandap for the public to lodge a complaint if any.
  14. The organisers should not deliver the speeches or try to create violence in any way by insulting or abusing the people coming for darshan.

As per the guidelines issued by Bombay High Court, the Mandals have to give an undertaking that they will not cause inconvenience to the traffic and pedestrian movement, violate fire safety rules, play loudspeaker after the appointed time, create potholes on the road where Mandals are set. The Mumbai Police issues traffic advisory this year to deploy the 40,000 personnel for security of people. The municipal authorities have allowed not more than 200 people to cross the bridges in the allotted time this year and also some roads have been closed ahead for the Ganpati festival.

Over 50 Mandals were found violating the high court norms last year, after which the BMC served a notice stating that they would not get permission to erect Mandaps if they have flouted the rules given by the BMC.

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Rules to be followed by the Ganpati Mandals

By: admin Others 11 Sep 2019

The Mandal should take permission from the maintenance department of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), which sanctions the setting up of the mandap. The willing Mandals need to submit an online application for receiving the consent for setting up the Mandap.

The BMC issues two months prior notice to the Ganesh festival for the Ganesha Mandals across the city to seek permission by applying online. The BMC online application system is linked with the police and traffic department, respectively.

Before submitting the application to BMC, the applicant needs to sign an undertaking cum Indemnity Bond for fire safety requirements of the fire brigade. The Chairman, Secretary and applicant all three have to sign the undertaking or the bond.

After submitting the applications, the applications are forwarded to ward offices along with the police and traffic department within three days for approval.

Apart from the online permission, the Mandals have to obtain permission from the local police station for Agaman, Visarjan and playing sound system.

The notice issued states that the Mandals will have to follow the rules and regulations stated by BMC in Mumbai.
As per the High Court, the core committee of the Mandal has to take the permission of the City Police Commissioner so that police can ensure the right of the citizens, smooth movement of traffic and free pedestrian movement on footpaths.

Mandals should comply with the rules related to the location, immersion, sound limits etc. Some of the rules that should be followed by the Mandals are as follows:

  1. The Mandal cannot set up a Mandap which encroaches a footpath or obstructs traffic. 
  2. The Mandal Committee members shall take measures to prevent sound pollution and should not use loudspeakers after 10 p.m.
  3. The Mandap should be located minimum 10 feet away from a building; also the road leading towards the Mandals should not have any obstructions for e.g. the parked vehicles, hoardings, etc. 
  4. The Mandap should be at least 15 meters away from railway and from combustible places such as an electric sub-station, chimney or furnace.
  5. The necessary fire safety measures should be taken, including electrical wiring, fire extinguishers (both water and dry powdered ones), etc. 
  6. Permission from police and traffic department is essential.
  7. The rules stated by BMC has clearly mentioned that the holes should not be made on the road. If any Mandals is found making holes on the road will be penalized with a hefty fine.
  8. It is necessary to mention the dimension of the Mandap with respect to its height, width, size, etc. while filling up the application form in order to get consent.
  9. No hoardings of advertisement related to tobacco and the related products anywhere within or around the mandap shall be found. The hoardings should not create an obstruction for the movement of people and emergency vehicles like an ambulance.
  10. The Mandal should be responsible for maintaining hygiene and cleanliness all around the Mandap for all days of the festival. After the celebration is done, the very next day, the whole place where the Mandap was built should be cleaned up. There should be no presence of litter/ garbage left around the Mandals. 
  11. No stalls are allowed to set up inside the Mandals. The stalls set outside the Mandals are not permitted as they can possibly create an obstruction to the road.  It is necessary to take permission for setting temporary arches, gates which the Mandals may build temporarily at the entry or exit point of the Mandap.  
  12. Every Mandal should display the telephone or mobile number of the competent authority for various civic services, complaints, health-related complaints,  for security purpose and different type of nuisance.
  13. The toll- free number should be displayed on the Mandap for the public to lodge a complaint if any.
  14. The organisers should not deliver the speeches or try to create violence in any way by insulting or abusing the people coming for darshan.

As per the guidelines issued by Bombay High Court, the Mandals have to give an undertaking that they will not cause inconvenience to the traffic and pedestrian movement, violate fire safety rules, play loudspeaker after the appointed time, create potholes on the road where Mandals are set. The Mumbai Police issues traffic advisory this year to deploy the 40,000 personnel for security of people. The municipal authorities have allowed not more than 200 people to cross the bridges in the allotted time this year and also some roads have been closed ahead for the Ganpati festival.

Over 50 Mandals were found violating the high court norms last year, after which the BMC served a notice stating that they would not get permission to erect Mandaps if they have flouted the rules given by the BMC.

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The Growth of technology Patents in India

By: Adv. Ayantika Mondal Others 22 Aug 2019

The word ‘Patent’ is equivalent to monopoly rights over an invention. Not all inventions are patentable and nor is it essential to protect one’s invention solely through a patent. Once a patent is granted, the patent inventions confer certain rights on the rightful owner, it is a right capable of protection under the Patent Act. 

A patent is essential to a company because it can help to safeguard one’s invention, innovation or an idea. It can protect any product, design or process that meets certain specifications based on its originality, practicality, suitability, and utility.

As a report generated by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) listed below is a list of reasons as to why one should patent their idea and innovation.

The owner has the following rights:

  1. Patents provide exclusive rights which usually allows your Company to use and exploit the invention for the term of the Patent
  2. Deter competition based on this monopoly/exclusive rights
  3. Controlled deployment and development process of your technology
  4. Through these exclusive rights, your Company can prevent others from commercially using your patented invention. This helps you to establish your Company in the market
  5. You can commercialize on these exclusive rights to obtain higher returns on your investment
  6. You have an opportunity to license or sell your invention in order to optimize on your commercialization and earn a chance to charge a hefty royalty fee 
  7. An IP right such as a Patent will increase your negotiating power in case of a joint venture/ new business
  8. Shareholders will perceive your IP portfolio as a high level of the technological capacity of your Company.

The History of patent law in India can be traced back to 1911 when the Patent and Design Act was enacted, however, it was repealed and the present Patents Act, 1970 came into place to amend and consolidate the earlier patent laws.

The rightful owner enjoys monopoly rights over his patent for a period of 20 years after which it shall be open to exploitation by others. This time period starts soon as you file your patent.

India is on course to become one of the leading hubs for innovation, research and development, because of which even the intellectual property (IP) industry is showing huge potential for growth.

Emerging techs such as the Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), and Cyber Security accounted for 50 % of the tech patents filed in the year 2017 to 2018.

Wipro has filed a patent application to generate a safe navigation path for driverless vehicles, and TCS has filed a patent application for pest management, where the system provided pest forecasting using historical pesticide usage information.

Innovation is the key to drive the transformation, and such IP is a testimony to this transformational growth in India.

As stated in the report updated by NASSCOM ‘Emerging Technologies: Leading the next wave of IP Creation for India', Indian firms filed over 4,600 patents between 2015 and 2018. A majority of these patents were in the technology domain.

The report has showcased how Indian firms are creating IP assets in the United States, which is one of the most favoured countries to file a patent.

Additionally, the report also has found that the share of tech patents are on the rise. During the year 2017-18, the tech patents were 65 per cent of the total patents filed.

Having patents in an emerging tech is definitely a source of competitive advantage, especially as companies are transitioning to build and use products and platforms on which companies compose, design and implement their work and research.

The Nasscom President stated that Innovation is the key to drive transformation and such patents are a testimony to this transformational growth. She further added that as a country,  India could further strengthen its potential as an innovation hub through more frequent investments in research and strategic collaborations. We are confident that we will usher in a new wave of innovation and intelligence in the country.

Nikhil Malhotra, from Tech Mahindra, said that in addition to being a competitive advantage, creating IP can also help to drive long term revenues as well as boost employee morale.

Indian technology companies have stepped up filing patents as they build solutions and products in emerging technologies and look to monetise their IP and grow their business faster. The proliferation of digital technologies across industries is perhaps the biggest reason why these firms are rushing to create IP.


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Citizenship under the Indian Constitution

By: admin Others 16 Aug 2019

What does the term Citizenship mean?

For many, the word ‘Citizenship’ conjures images of a strong national identity determined by birth, ethnicity, history, culture and. In a legal sense, ‘Citizenship’ indicates the political status and relationship shared by an individual and the nation. Generally, the individual is conferred protection by the nation in return for fulfilling certain obligations owed by the individual to the state.

Citizenship is a status granted by becoming a member of the nation through appropriate law. Any person can become a member of the country by satisfying the legal requirements of the respective country. In simple terms, the virtue of being a citizen of the country is called citizenship.

Every state grants some rights and privileges to its citizens, and they are also bound to follow the regulations framed by the government of the respective country.

Nationality Vs Citizenship

‘Nationality’ and ‘Citizenship’ are one of the most misconstrued and misunderstood terms. For a layman, ‘nationality’ works as a substitute for ‘Citizenship’ and vice versa. However, one of the major difference between the two concepts is that nationality can't be changed while citizenship can. To further explain this statement, we should take the following into consideration: The nationality of a person, reveals his/her place of birth, i.e. from where he/she belongs. It defines the belongingness of a person to a particular nation. And on the contrary, Citizenship is granted to an individual by the government of the country, upon completing legal formalities.

The Citizenship law in India

The Citizenship law in India is governed by the Citizenship Act, 1955 and The Constitution of India. India is one of the very few countries whose Citizenship law is incorporated in the Constitution. Due to unavoidable circumstances that arose because of the partition of India and Pakistan and the freedom of Indian state to either join the Union or leave it, the citizenship law had to be incorporated in the Constitution.

How can one acquire Indian citizenship?

To be entitled to acquire Citizenship by Domicile there are 3 conditions which need to be fulfilled:-

  1. He must have been born in the territory of India,
  2. Either of his parents must have been born in the territory of India,
  3. He must have been ordinarily residing in India for not less than five years immediately preceding the commencement of the constitution.

Ways through which a person can acquire Citizenship and become a recognized citizen are:-

  1. Birth (A Person Born in India shall be Citizen),
  2. Descent (A person born outside India shall be a citizen of India by descent),
  3. Naturalization (Citizenship of India by naturalisation can be acquired by a foreigner who is ordinarily resident in India for twelve years),
  4. Registration (Citizenship of India by registration),
  5. Marriage,
  6. Incorporation of the territory.

Status of Dual Citizenship in India

The Indian constitution does not allow its citizens the right to dual citizenship. But there are some powers that are in relation to dual citizenship, similar if not the same. When you become an Indian citizen, you will be obliged to give up your previous passport.

The provision of Overseas Citizenship of India and Person of Indian Origin is often confused with dual citizenship. There is a misconception that our Indian Constitution grants the provision for dual citizenship. However, the terms are explained below:

Non-Resident Indians: Those who still hold Indian passports but work or live in other countries;

Person of Indian Origin (PIO) cardholder: Someone who is a foreign citizen but who at some point of time held an Indian passport or whose parents/grandparents/great-grandparents were born and permanently resided in India or is a spouse of a citizen of India or a PIO and;

Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI) cardholders: Those who have given up their Indian passports but hold certain rights in India except voting rights.

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Basic Structure of the Indian Constitution

By: admin Others 14 Aug 2019

- According to the Indian Constitution, the Parliament and the state legislatures have the supreme power to make laws within their respective jurisdictions.

- The Constitution vests the power to adjudicate the constitutional validity of all laws enacted in the judiciary.

- Bills passed to amend the Constitution can only be introduced in the Parliament, but this power is not absolute in nature.

- If the Supreme Court finds that any law passed by the Parliament or the state legislature’s, is inconsistent with the Constitution or violates any provision of the Constitution, the court has the power to hold that law to be invalid, void or ultra vires.

- The founding fathers of the Constitution wanted it to be an adaptable document rather than a rigid and unchangeable framework dedicated to governance.

- Hence, the Parliament was invested with the power to amend the Constitution through Article 368 of the Constitution. It gives the impression that the Parliament's amending powers are absolute in nature.

- But the Supreme Court has acted as a conscious and continuous break to the legislative enthusiasm of the Parliament ever since independence was attained.

- With the intention of preserving the philosophy and the original ideals of the Constitution as envisioned by the constituent assembly, the Apex Court held that Parliament could not distort, damage or alter the basic features under the pretext of amending the Constitution.

- The Supreme Court has laid down the basic structure doctrine. According to the doctrine, the Parliament cannot destroy or alter the basic structure of the doctrine.

- The phrase basic structure itself is not described anywhere in the Constitution.

- The Supreme Court recognised the concept of the basic structure for the very first time in the landmark judgement of the Kesavananda Bharati case in 1973.

- The concept of the doctrine developed gradually with the interference of the judiciary from time to time to protect the basic rights of the people and the ideals and the philosophy of the Constitution.

- Ever since the Supreme Court has been the interpreter of all amendments made by Parliament to the Constitution

The inception of the Doctrine of Basic structure

  • The unspoken tiff between the Judiciary and the Legislature took a different shape after the decision in the IC Golakh Nath case.
  • The Constitution (24th Amendment) was passed to nullify the IC Golakh Nath Case.
  • 4 clauses were added in the Article to blanket the fact that the Parliament holds an omnibus constituent power.
  • The Constitution (25th Amendment) introduced a new provision, Article 31C, in the Constitution under which law giving effect to the Directive Principles of the State Policy enumerated under Part IV of the Constitution were deemed automatically valid despite any inconsistency with the fundamental rights granted under the Constitution.
  • Fundamental Rights are more ascertained rights given to all individuals and the Directive Principles are mere measures to be followed by the states. Hence, the Directive Principles cannot be inconsistent or in violation of the basic fundamental rights of an individual.
 

Keshavananda Bharati case

The Keshavananda Bharati case challenged certain amendments of the Constitution. Some of the points put forward were: -

  • No distinction between Constituent power and Legislative Power
  • IC Golaknath was correctly decided, and wrongly nullified.
  • ‘We the people’ have given only limited rights to the Parliament
  • Article 368 - not a charter to sign death wish
  • Parliament not an official liquidator of the Constitution
  • Parliament only a creature of the Constitution not it's master
 

What can be defined as the basic structure?

From time to time the basic structure is enhanced with some new content and clarification, and hence the Supreme Court is yet to define the exact basic structure of the Constitution. It has laid down a vague list of topics through various judgements. Below is a list of some topics that can be covered under the basic structure doctrine, this list is only illustrative and not nearly exhaustive:

  • The supremacy of the Indian Constitution
  • Democratic View
  • The rule of law
  • Sovereignty, liberty and republic nature of Indian polity
  • Judicial review
  • Harmony and Balance between fundamental rights and directive principles
  • Separation of power
  • Federal character
  • Dignity of Individual
  • Parliamentary system
  • Rule of equality
  • Unity and integrity of the nation
  • Free and fair elections
  • Powers of SC under Article 32,136,142,147
  • Power of HC under Article 226 and 227
  • Limited power of parliament to amend the Constitution
  • Welfare state
  • Freedom of an individual
  • Free and fair elections
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A comparative study of the Indian, UK and the US Constitution

By: admin Others 14 Aug 2019

A constitution is a set of rules that govern a country. Some countries have a formal written constitution in which the structure of government is well defined, and the respective powers of the country and the states are written in one single document, and some have unwritten constitutions which mean there is no formal written constitution. Their constitutional rules are originated and based on a number of sources.
 
For example; Britain sources its constitution from several important statutes, or laws, as well as principles decided in legal cases and conventions. New Zealand and Israel are two other countries that do not have formal written constitutions.
 
Listed below are some comparisons in the study of Indian, UK and the US constitution.
 
India UK US

Written Constitution

(Lengthiest in the world)

Unwritten Constitution

(based on conventions and political traditions)

 

Written Constitution

(shortest constitutions amongst major world powers)

 

The process of amendment:

Amending the Constitution is a combination of rigid and flexible process. It Can be amended by a Simple Majority, Special Majority or ratification by more than half of the states.

(Basic structure cannot be amended)

 

The process of amendment:

Constitution amending procedure is flexible can be amended or repealed by a Simple Majority.

(Since no distinction is made between constitutional law and ordinary law. Both are treated alike)

The process of amendment:

The process is very rigid

(2/3rd of the States should pass a resolution to this effect. Congress will call the convention. In the convention, it has to be ratified by 3/4th of the States)

Center  + State:

The interdependence of Centre and state govt. Neither of them is independent of the other. The Central government interferes with the functions of state governments. The head of state is the president while the actual head of the government is the prime minister. 

Unitary:

The British constitution has a unitary character as opposed to a federal one. All powers of the government are vested in the British Parliament, which is a sovereign body.

 

Federal:

Dual Federation (USA) – both the Centre and state are completely independent. They are complete governments.

the Federal Government and States have their Constitutions and do not interfere in each other’s functions

 

Government:

India has adopted a Parliamentary form of government.

Both President and Governor exercise the power of ordinance making under the constitution, thus performing legislative functions.

 

Government:

Britain has a parliamentary form of government. The real functionaries are Ministers, who belong to the majority party in the Parliament and remain in office as long as they retain its confidence. (The UK is the self-governing country, but the head of the state is monarch)

 

Government:

America has adopted a Presidential form of government. The President is both the head of the state as well as its chief executive.

 

Term:

the Indian President and Prime Minister holds the office for 5 years

(can be extended)

 

Term:

The British prime minister holds the office for 4 years(can be extended)

Term:

The term of the American President is 4 years (fixed-term)

Separation of Powers:

Parliament is entrusted to make the law; Executive is entrusted with the duty of implementation of the law, Judiciary to implement the law.

 

Separation of Powers:

The Lord Chancellor is the head of the judiciary, Chairman of the House of Commons (Legislature), a member of the executive and often a member of the cabinet. The House of Commons ultimately controls the Legislative. The judiciary is independent, but the judges of the superior courts can be removed on an address from both Houses of Parliament.

 

Separation of Powers:

Art. I vest legislative power in the Congress; Art. II vests executive power in the President and Art. III vests judicial power in the Supreme Court.

Citizenship:

India has one constitution and concept of single citizenship for every citizen of the country.

Citizenship:

The UK constitution has not been codified in one document. General constitutional principles run through the law. Central statutes have been recognised as holding "constitutional" value.

Citizenship:

America has adopted the doctrine of the dual ship in respect of its Constitution and citizenship. It has two Constitutions, one, for America as a whole and another for each State.

The sovereignty of power:

The Parliament can modify the major portion of the Constitution through its constituent power.

The Supreme Court can declare the parliamentary laws as unconstitutional through its power of judicial review.

The sovereignty of power:

The British Parliament is the only the legislative body in the country with unfettered power of legislation. It can make, amend or repeal any law. The courts have no power to question the validity of the laws passed by the British Parliament. The British Parliament may amend the constitution on its authority, like an ordinary law of the land.

 

The sovereignty of power:

The principle of judicial supremacy lies with the American Supreme Court.

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Can the Indian Constitution be Amended?

By: admin Others 13 Aug 2019

Under the Constitution, India declares itself as a ‘Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic’ country. The Constitution of India was passed by the constituent assembly on 26 November 1949, and it came into effect on 26th January 1950.

No Written Constitution is complete without providing amending provisions; in some respects, the amending provision is the most important part of the Constitution. The term ‘amendment’ derives from the Latin word ‘amendere.’ The term ‘amend’ generally means to make right, to make a correction or to rectify. In common parlance ‘amendment’ conveys the sense of a slight change.

The object of the amending clause in a Constitution is to ensure that the Constitution is preserved. A State cannot be static. A Constitution should be dynamic and adaptable in nature to keep up with the changing needs of society. A change in society will require a change in the Constitution. Article 368 of the Indian Constitution lists down the procedure of Amendment.

The amending provision in the written Constitution assumes great importance because it gives a chance to the successive generation to grow it as per their needs. The amending process is an opportunity to express state-related concerns without derogating from the basic fundamental constitutional principles. The constitution was framed nearly 70 years ago, the framers then, could not possibly anticipate the current Indian political and socio-economic condition. An amendment is made with a view to overcoming the difficulties which may arise in future in the working of the Constitution.

There are two types of amending procedures; Rigid: difficult to amend the constitution (e.g. US, Canada) and Flexible: easy to amend with passing normal legislation.

The Indian Constitution is both rigid as well as flexible, i.e. it is difficult to amend but under necessary conditions practically flexible. The formal method of an amendment is described in Part- XX of the Constitution, which consists of Article 368 only.

An amendment may be introduced by way of a Bill in either House of Parliament, and when the Bill is passed in each House by a simple majority or a special majority or by a majority of not less than two thirds of the total members of that house present and voting, it shall be then presented to the President who shall give his assent to the Bill. The Constitution shall then stand amended in accordance with the terms of the Bill.

The amendment shall also be ratified by the Legislature of not less than one half of the States by resolutions before the Bill is presented to the President for assent.

However, it is crucial to take into consideration that the Parliament is a part of the Constitution, no doubt Parliament can amend the Constitution, but that does not mean that Parliament could so amend provisions of the constitution so as to change its own constituent power beyond any recognition.

From Keshavananda Bharathi case to I.R.Coelho case, the Supreme Court repeatedly stressed on the point that the Parliament has no power to bring an amendment to the basic structure of the Constitution. The basic structure includes but is not limited to the concept of supremacy of the Constitution, republican and democratic form of government, secular character of the Constitution, separation of powers between the legislature, executive and the judiciary etc. Thereby it imposes implied limitations upon the power of Parliament.

List of some amendments:
  1. Empowered the state to make the advancement of socially and economically backward classes. – In 1951
  2. Included a new subject in the Union list, i.e. taxes on the sale and purchase of goods in the course of inter-state trade and commerce and restricted the state’s power in this regard. – In 1956
  3. Incorporation of Dadra, Nagar and Haveli as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal – 1961 
  4. Enabled the High court’s to issue writs to any person or authority even outside its territory’s jurisdiction if the cause of action arises within its territorial limits – 1963 
  5. The Act extends reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in Parliament and the State Assemblies and the representation of Anglo-Indians by a nomination for a further period of 10 years – 1980
  6. It confers Statehood on Goa and forms a new Union Territory of Daman and Diu. Goa thus became the 25th State of the Indian Republic – 1987
  7. To ensure direct election to all seats in Panchayats; to reserve seats for SCs and STs in proportion to their population, and for reservation of not less than one-third of the seats in Panchayats for women – 1992 
  8. It deals with an alternative scheme for sharing taxes between the Union and the States – 2001 
  9. Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and early childhood care until the age of six – 2002 
  10. Provided for 27 per cent reservation for other backward classes in government as well as private higher educational institutions – 2006
  11. The amendment provides for the formation of a National Judicial Appointments Commission – 2014 
  12. Reorganization of Jammu Kashmir; The Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir with a legislature, and the Union Territory of Ladakh without a legislature.  The Union Territory of Ladakh will comprise Kargil and Leh districts, and the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir will comprise the remaining territories of the existing state of Jammu and Kashmir –2019 

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